Others have said that Allah was angry that Muslims were killing each other in an ongoing conflict. [123], Countries in the region appealed to tourists to return, pointing out that most tourist infrastructure is undamaged. [26], The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake is thought to have triggered activity in both Leuser Mountain[27] and Mount Talang,[28] volcanoes in Aceh along the same range of peaks, while the 2005 Nias–Simeulue earthquake had sparked activity in Lake Toba, an ancient crater in Sumatra. The second wave was the strongest. The maximum runup height of almost 9 m (30 ft) was recorded in Bandarbeyla. 'Megathrust earthquakes' triggered both the 2011 Japanese and 2004 Boxing Day tsunamis. Major locations damaged included the western shores of Phuket island, the resort town of Khao Lak in Phang Nga province, the Phi Phi islands, the Surin Islands and Similan archipelago, the coastal provinces of Krabi, Satun, Ranong and Trang and small offshore islands like Ko Racha Yai. 5 Near-field Propagation of Tsunamis from Megathrust Earthquakes 10 John McCloskey1*, Andrea Antonioli1, Alessio Piatanesi2, Kerry Sieh3, Sandy Steacy1, Suleyman S. Nalbant1, Massimo Cocco2, Carlo Giunchi2, JianDong Huang1 and Paul Dunlop1 1 Geophysics Research Group, School of Environmental Sciences, University of Ulster, Coleraine, Co Derry,BT52 1SA, N. Ireland. Around 289 fatalities were reported in the Horn of Africa, drowned by four tsunami waves. Footage showed evidence of back-flowing of the Aceh River, carrying debris and people from destroyed villages at the coast and transporting them up to 40 km (25 mi) inland. [citation needed], The hardest-hit area, Aceh, is a religiously conservative Islamic society and has had no tourism nor any Western presence in recent years due to the insurgency between the Indonesian military and Free Aceh Movement (GAM). A few other African countries also recorded fatalities; one in Kenya, three in Seychelles, ten in Tanzania, and South Africa, where two were killed as a direct result of the tsunami—the furthest from the epicentre. The sea was observed to rise suddenly before the onset of the first wave. Oxfam went on to report that as many as four times more women than men were killed in some regions because they were waiting on the beach for the fishers to return and looking after their children in the houses. [citation needed]. It has been reported that severe damage has been inflicted on ecosystems such as mangroves, coral reefs, forests, coastal wetlands, vegetation, sand dunes and rock formations, animal and plant biodiversity and groundwater. The relative motion of the subducting and overriding plates varies slightly along strike due to these complexities but is always strongly oblique. The tsunami first struck the eastern coastline and subsequently refracted around the southern point of Sri Lanka (Dondra Head). 14", "Asia-Pacific | 'Hundreds feared dead' in Burma", "The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami Disaster: Evaluation of UNICEF's response (emergency and recovery phase). These interplate earthquakes are the planet's most powerful, with moment magnitudes (M w) that can exceed 9.0.Since 1900, all earthquakes of magnitude 9.0 or greater have been megathrust earthquakes. [120], Some economists believe that damage to the affected national economies will be minor because losses in the tourism and fishing industries are a relatively small percentage of the GDP. The exact sequence of events involved in the earthquake continues to raise many questions. Consequently, tsunami runup heights vary from 5 m (16 ft) to 9 m (30 ft) with inundation distances varying from 44 m (144 ft) to 704 m (2,310 ft). Helping restore the quality of drinking water after the tsunami. INTRODUCTION The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake occurred at 00:58:53 UTC on 26 December with the epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. Salted-over soil becomes sterile, and it is difficult and costly to restore for agriculture. [21], Great earthquakes, such as the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, are associated with megathrust events in subduction zones. [54] John Chroston, a biology teacher from Scotland, also recognised the signs at Kamala Bay north of Phuket, taking a busload of vacationers and locals to safety on higher ground. [78] A video recorded by locals showed the tsunami flooding the beach and villages causing despair amongst the villagers. Run up level up to 3.8 m (12 ft) have been measured.[80]. [48], Some of the tsunami's energy escaped into the Pacific Ocean, where it produced small but measurable tsunamis along the western coasts of North and South America, typically around 200 to 400 mm (7.9 to 15.7 in). The waves arrived after the sea receded about 500 m (1,600 ft), followed by an advancing small tsunami. [25] The U.S. Geological Survey sees no evidence of a causal relationship between these events. By February 2005, the earthquake's effects were still detectable as a 20 μm (0.02 mm; 0.0008 in) complex harmonic oscillation of the Earth's surface, which gradually diminished and merged with the incessant free oscillation of the Earth more than four months after the earthquake.[33]. The first wave came rapidly landward from the south-west as a turbulent bore about 0.5–2.5 m (1.6–8.2 ft) high. [citation needed].The second and third waves came in 10 minutes intervals after the first wave. Bletery et al. A 2006 study estimated a magnitude of Mw 9.1–9.3; Hiroo Kanamori of the California Institute of Technology estimates that Mw  9.2 is representative of the earthquake's size. Moments later, the tsunami can be seen suddenly surging as a turbulent bore and inundating a person, several people and the hotels inland . Since over 51,000 vessels were lost to the tsunami, the industry boomed. [43][44], According to Tad Murty, vice-president of the Tsunami Society, the total energy of the tsunami waves was equivalent to about 5 megatons of TNT (21 PJ), which is more than twice the total explosive energy used during all of World War II (including the two atomic bombs) but still a couple of orders of magnitude less than the energy released in the earthquake itself. [124], Beyond the heavy toll on human lives, the Indian Ocean earthquake has caused an enormous environmental impact that will affect the region for many years to come. At Koh Sriboya, the tsunami advanced inland as a turbulent medium bore while at Koh Phayam in Ranong province, the tsunami appeared as a wall of water. Video footage showed that the tsunami appeared as multiple white surfs violently lifting up yachts, boats and crashing onto beaches. [40] These satellites carry radars that measure precisely the height of the water surface; anomalies in the order of 500 mm (20 in) were measured. 165–184. She and her parents warned others on the beach, which was evacuated safely. Some believe that the tsunami was divine punishment for lay Muslims shirking their daily prayers or following a materialistic lifestyle. It drowned forests and … 1,500-metre-high (5,000 ft) thrust ridges created by previous geologic activity along the fault had collapsed, generating landslides several kilometres wide. Other videos recorded showed that the tsunami appeared like a flood raging inland. The strike-slip component of the oblique convergence is accommodated by displacement on the Great Sumatran fault, while the dip-slip component is taken up by the Sunda megathrust. The highest-recorded tsunami run-up was measured 19.6 m (64 ft) at Ban Thung Dap, on the south-west tip of Ko Phra Thong Island and the second-highest at 15.8 m (52 ft) at Ban Nam Kim. For example, the folklore of the Onges talks of "huge shaking of ground followed by high wall of water". The largest amplitude signals are seismic surface waves that reach the antipode after about 100 minutes. 2004 Indian Ocean disaster. This rare sight reportedly induced people, especially children, to visit the coast to investigate and collect stranded fish on as much as 2.5 km (1.6 mi) of exposed beach, with fatal results. [74] A maximum inundation of approximately 2 km (1.2 mi) was measured, the inundated depths were 4–7 m (13–23 ft) and there was evidence that the tsunami reached the third floor of a resort hotel. In addition, the tsunami inflicted damage to the popular resort town of Ao Nang in Krabi province. B1, Pages 895–919", "Research Group on The December 26, 2004 Earthquake Tsunami Disaster of Indian Ocean", "A Comparative Study of the Sumatran Subduction-Zone Earthquakes of 1935 and 1984", https://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eqinthenews/2008/us2008nran/#details, https://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eqinthenews/2012/usc0007ir5/#details, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sunda_megathrust&oldid=958550365, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 24 May 2020, at 12:31. A video documented by a local restaurant manager from a hill adjacent to the beach, showed that the tsunami's arrival was preceded by a sudden retreat of the sea exposing the seafloor. The Sunda megathrust can be divided into the Andaman Megathrust, Sumatra(n) Megathrust and Java(n) Megathrust. [citation needed], Other huge megathrust earthquakes occurred in 1868 (Peru, Nazca Plate and South American Plate); 1827 (Colombia, Nazca Plate and South American Plate); 1812 (Venezuela, Caribbean Plate and South American Plate) and 1700 (western North America, Juan de Fuca Plate and North American Plate). A second team found similar evidence of previous tsunamis in Aceh, a province at the northern tip of Sumatra; radiocarbon dating of bark fragments in the soil below the second sand layer led the scientists to estimate that the most recent predecessor to the 2004 tsunami probably occurred between A.D. 1300 and 1450. Early speculation was that some of the smaller islands south-west of Sumatra, which is on the Burma Plate (the southern regions are on the Sunda Plate), might have moved south-west by up to 36 m (120 ft), but more accurate data released more than a month after the earthquake found the movement to be about 200 mm (8 in). The measured tsunami height was 4.6 m (15 ft) in the port. These problems also made the delivery of relief aid more challenging. [1] The largest earthquakes occur on separate 'patches' along the megathrust surface (1797, 1833, 1861, 2004, 2005 & 2007), with smaller events occurring at the boundaries between these patches (1935, 1984, 2000 & 2002). The shock had a moment magnitude of 9.1–9.3 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of IX (Violent). [142], The tsunami left both the people and government of India in a state of heightened alert. Giritharan, S. Bardhan, S.R. There were no tsunami warning systems in the Indian Ocean to detect tsunamis or to warn the general population living around the ocean. However, this was proven untrue. In the Krishna district, the tsunami created havoc in Manginapudi and on Machalipattanam Beach. In Myanmar, the tsunami caused only moderate damage, which arrived between 2 and 5.5 hours after the earthquake. [73] Moreover, the largest death toll occurred at Khao Lak, with about 5,000 people killed. Along the west coast, the inundation was observed around Guptapara, Manjeri, Wandoor, Collinpur and Tirur regions. [6] A much higher number of deaths has been suggested for Myanmar based on reports from Thailand. [66], The greatest run-up height of the tsunami was measured at a hill between Lhoknga and Leupung, on the western coast of the northern tip of Sumatra, near Banda Aceh, and reached 51 m (167 ft). Although the country's western Andaman Sea coastline lies at the proximity of the rupture zone, there were smaller tsunamis than the neighbouring Thai coast, because the main tsunami source did not extend to the Andaman Islands. This was a result of the high proportion of children in the populations of many of the affected regions and because children were the least able to resist being overcome by the surging waters. The key parameter is the curvature of the megathrust. 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International Tsunami Information Center", "Field Surveys of 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami From Sumatra to East Africa", "Myanmar is withholding true casualties figures, says Thai priest", "A2/2004Y Aasian luonnonkatastrofi 26.12.2004", "One year after the tsunami, Sri Lankan survivors still live in squalour", "India, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, Somalia, Thailand: Earthquake and Tsunami OCHA Situation Report No. However, the huge demand has led to lower quality in the process, and some important materials were sacrificed to cut prices for those who were impoverished by the tsunami. The hardest-hit country outside Asia, Sweden, lost 543 tourists, mainly in Thailand. The Andaman Islands were moderately affected while the island of Little Andaman and the Nicobar Islands were severely affected by the tsunami. An estimated 1,600 km (1,000 mi) of fault surface slipped (or ruptured) about 15 m (50 ft) along the subduction zone where the Indian Plate slides (or subducts) under the overriding Burma Plate. [61], Lhoknga is a small coastal community about 13 km (8.1 mi) south-west of Banda Aceh, located on a flat coastal plain in between two rainforest-covered hills, overlooking a large bay and famous for its large swathe of white sandy beach and surfing activities. [132], The 2004 earthquake and tsunami combined is the world's deadliest natural disaster since the 1976 Tangshan earthquake. argue that certain geometric features of the subduction zones relate to earthquake size. Prior to 2004, the most recent megathrust earthquakes along the Sumatran-Andaman plate boundary were in 1797 (M 8.7-8.9), 1833 (M 8.9-9.1) and 1861 (M8.5). [78], The tsunami run-up was only 1.6 m (5.2 ft) in areas in the state of Tamil Nadu shielded by the island of Sri Lanka but was 4–5 m (13–16 ft) in coastal districts such as Nagapattinam in Tamil Nadu directly across from Sumatra. Many of these tourists were caught off-guard by the tsunami, as they had no prior warning. [1] I observed tidal triggering of earthquakes precursory to the three giant earthquakes occurring off Sumatra on 26 December 2004 (M w 9.0), 28 March 2005 (M w 8.6), and 12 September 2007 (M w 8.5). One of the few coastal areas to evacuate ahead of the tsunami was on the Indonesian island of Simeulue, close to the epicentre. A tsunami that causes damage far away from its source is sometimes called a teletsunami and is much more likely to be produced by the vertical motion of the seabed than by horizontal motion. According to eyewitness accounts, the tsunami came from the north and south. [125], According to specialists, the main effect is being caused by poisoning of the freshwater supplies and of the soil by saltwater infiltration and a deposit of a salt layer over arable land. Each of these megathrust earthquakes also spawned tsunamis in the Pacific Ocean. The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was initially documented as having a moment magnitude of 8.8. Major damage occurred in two narrow strips of land bound on the west by the Arabian Sea and on the east by the Kerala backwaters. Horspool estimated the potential impact using a computer model. The 2002 Sumatra earthquake is believed to have been a foreshock, preceding the main event by over two years. [78] The tsunami travelled 2.5 km (1.6 mi) at its maximum inland at Karaikal, Puducherry. [122], Both the earthquake and the tsunami may have affected shipping in the Malacca Straits, which separate Malaysia and the Indonesian island of Sumatra, by changing the depth of the seabed and by disturbing navigational buoys and old shipwrecks. A series of massive tsunami waves grew up to 30 m (100 ft) high once heading inland, after being created by the underwater seismic activity offshore. The tsunami travelled eastward through the Andaman Sea and hit the south-western coasts of Thailand, about 2 hours after the earthquake. The World Food Programme provided food aid to more than 1.3 million people affected by the tsunami. Despite a delay of up to several hours between the earthquake and the impact of the tsunami, nearly all of the victims were taken by surprise. Chapter 6, "Thailand", in Jayasuriya, Sisira and Peter McCawley. The locals reported 10 to 12 tsunamis, with the second and third waves being the highest and most destructive. [117][118] In Sri Lanka artisanal fishery, where the use of fish baskets, fishing traps, and spears are commonly used, is an important source of fish for local markets; industrial fishery is the major economic activity, providing direct employment to about 250,000 people. [80] At Port Blair, the water receded before the first wave, and the third wave was the tallest and caused the most damage. According to interviews, the second wave was the largest. In the distant horizon, gigantic black waves about 30 m (98 ft) high made explosion-like sounds as it broke and approached the shore. The ground level was about 2 m above sea level, and there were many cottages and hotels. Due to close proximity to the earthquake, the tsunami took just minutes to devastate the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The first warning sign of a possible tsunami is the earthquake itself. Flooding occurred at the coast and low-lying areas inland, which were connected to open sea through creeks. In comparison to the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, the death toll from these earthquakes was significantly lower, primarily because of the lower population density along the coasts near affected areas, the much greater distances to more populated coasts, and the superior infrastructure and warning systems in MEDCs (More Economically Developed Countries) such as Japan. That billions of dollars would be considered a portion of the distances involved, the tsunami were and. Located on the region appealed to tourists to return, pointing out that most tourist infrastructure is.! Prayers or following a materialistic lifestyle emergency were declared in Sri Lanka, survivors reported three waves the!, President Bush asked Congress to increase the U.S. Geological Survey sees no evidence of possible... No tsunami warning systems in the Pacific Ocean active and therefore this may not have the Ring! 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