Tomato skins and their mixtures with seeds were submitted to supercritical CO2 extraction using a flow apparatus at pressures of 250 and 300 bar and temperatures of 60 and 80 °C. )", Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, "Influence of cooking procedure on the bioavailability of lycopene in tomatoes", "Carotenoid pigments in GAC fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis SPRENG)", "Tomato and lycopene supplementation and cardiovascular risk factors: A systematic review and meta-analysis", "An Update on the Health Effects of Tomato Lycopene", "Lycopene and tomato and risk of cardiovascular diseases: A systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological evidence", "Qualified Health Claims: Letter Regarding Tomatoes and Prostate Cancer (Lycopene Health Claim Coalition) (Docket No. This is then condensed with three molecules of isopentenyl pyrophosphate (an isomer of dimethylallyl pyrophosphate), to give the 20-carbon geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate. Lycopene is not an essential nutrient for humans, but is commonly found in the diet mainly from dishes prepared from tomatoes. Il existe également des preuves de l'action du lycopène sur la réduction de l'oxydation des LDL (low-density lipoprotein = lipoprot� Tomato lycopene and β-carotene inhibit low density lipoprotein oxidation and this effect depends on the lipoprotein vitamin E content Lycopene and myocardial infarction risk in the EURAMIC study. Kohlmeier I, Kark JD, Gomez-Gracia E, et al. [4] When exposed to light or heat, lycopene can undergo isomerization to any of a number of cis-isomers, which have a bent rather than linear shape. Available research suggests that doses of more than 25 milligrams of lycopene daily may lower levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL, or “bad”) cholesterol and total cholesterol. RESULTS: The lipid profile showed lycopene and astaxanthin decreased total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), very LDL-C, and triglycerides and increased high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level significantly (P < 0.05) compared to the control but less than atorvastatin. Increase in low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation is hypothesized to be causally associated with increasing risk of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. However, in vitro enrichment with either lutein or lycopene actually enhanced oxidation of the LDL. Heat sensitive - store at -70 C. Combustible. Increase in low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation is hypothesized to be causally associated with increasing risk of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents. However, a diet high in olive oil and rich in lycopene may decrease the risk of coronary heart disease by improving the serum lipid profile compared with a high-carbohydrate, low-fat, lycopene-rich di … Lycopene has antioxidant property. Lycopene is packaged in very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) by the liver and released to the systemic circulation (6). Cited in 4 publications Lycopene is especially interesting because of its considerable antioxidant activity that highly exceeds that of b-carotene and a-tocopherol [7,8]. 1998; 33:981-984. Our previous studies showed that in vitro enrichment of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) with β-carotene protected it from cell-mediated oxidation. OU Chemical Safety Data (No longer updated) More details: Safety: GHS07 Biosynth Q-100561: H315; H319; H335 Biosynth Q-100561: Minimize contact. Abstract The molecular structural and Raman spectroscopic characteristics of β‐carotene and lycopene are investigated by density functional calculations. Current studies show that lycopene holds antioxidant properties. [21] Processed tomato products such as pasteurized tomato juice, soup, sauce, and ketchup contain a higher concentration of bioavailable lycopene compared to raw tomatoes. Effect of lycopene on the copper ion-induced low density lipoprotein oxidation in broiler chickens. March 26, 2016. Stage 1 hypertensive subjects. Lycopene, CAS: 502-65-8, is a highly conjugated antioxidant carotenoid compound. Search results for lycopene at Sigma-Aldrich. Tomato and tomato products are rich sources of lycopene. Lipids. Lycopène : caractéristiques. Kyung-Woo Lee, Won-Don Choo, Chang-Won Kang and Byoung-Ki AnEmail author In recent epidemiological studies, tissue and serum levels of lycopene, a carotenoid available from tomatoes, have been found to be inversely related to risk of coronary heart disease. Tomato lycopene and low density lipoprotein oxidation: a human di- etary intervention study. [4] It is insoluble in water. Different isomers were shown to have different stabilities due to their molecular energy (highest stability: 5-cis ≥ all-trans ≥ 9-cis ≥ 13-cis > 15-cis > 7-cis > 11-cis: lowest). Effect of lycopene on the copper-induced oxidation of low-density lipoprotein in broiler chickens. These Secondary Standards are qualified as Certified Reference Materials. Lycopene is a lipid-soluble carotenoid that exists in both all-trans and cis-configurations in nature. Lipids (1998): 981-984. [4] Like all carotenoids, lycopene is a tetraterpene. High lycopene foods include guavas, cooked tomatoes, watermelon, grapefruit, papaya, sweet red peppers, persimmon, asparagus, red cabbage, and mangos. In animal models of atherosclerosis, lycopene and tomato products decreased plasma total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Stage 1 hypertensive subjects treated but uncontrolled Tomato and tomato products are rich sources of lycopene. As per a 2016 study , the presence of this compound will stunt the growth of certain cancerous tumors, or even reverse the growth and help induce apoptosis . Lycopene bioavailability in processed tomato products is higher than in unprocessed fresh tomatoes. Le lycopène appartient à la famille des caroténoïdes, des pigments naturels qui donnent leur couleur jaune-orange (carotènes) et rouge (lycopène) aux végétaux et à certains animaux. In this respect, skin lycopene has been reported to be more sensitive to UV light stress than b-carotene. The supercritical fluid process is being … Lycopene is also found to concentrate in the adrenal, liver, testes, and prostate. In the present work, the effect of lycopene on copper induced oxidation of isolated low‐density lipoprotein (LDL) and the related mechanism were investigated. Lycopene and its cis isomers were analysed by HPLC with photodiode array detection. The quenching mechanism of singlet oxygen by lycopene is analyzed based on the calculations at the B3LYP/6-311+(d,p) level. Lycopene is a naturally occurring red pigment, which belongs to the family of carotenoids. Full Text PDF [647K] Abstracts References(38) Cited-By(2) Intake of the antioxidant lycopene has been reported to decrease oxidative stress and have beneficial effects on bone health. [4], In plants, algae, and other photosynthetic organisms, lycopene is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of many carotenoids, including beta-carotene, which is responsible for yellow, orange, or red pigmentation, photosynthesis, and photoprotection. Serum lycopene level changes with dietary lycopene intake irrespective of the amount of fat intake. Carotenoids may protect low-density lipoprotein from oxidation, a process implicated in the development of atherosclerosis. Several human epidemiological studies, supplemented by in vivo and in vitro studies, have shown decreased bone loss following the consumption of lycopene/tomato. enriched in (very-) low-density lipoprotein fractions [5,6], no physiological function in humans has been described thus far. 48. [4], Lycopene is not an essential nutrient for humans, but is commonly found in the diet mainly from dishes prepared from tomatoes. Lycopene is also found to concentrate in the adrenal, liver, testes, and prostate. [12], The unconditioned biosynthesis of lycopene in eukaryotic plants and in prokaryotic cyanobacteria is similar, as are the enzymes involved. A powerful antioxidant that prevents free radicals that can damage cells. However, unlike other carotenoids, lycopene levels in serum or tissues do not correlate well with overall intake of fruits and vegetables. Serum lycopene level changes with dietary lycopene intake irrespective of the amount of fat intake. RESULTS: The lipid profile showed lycopene and astaxanthin decreased total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), very LDL-C, and triglycerides and increased high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level significantly (P < 0.05) compared to the control but less than atorvastatin. [9], Carotenoids like lycopene are found in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes in plants, photosynthetic bacteria, fungi, and algae. Current studies show that lycopene holds antioxidant properties. ↑ Erdman JW Jr, Ford NA, Lindshield BL. Because of its non-polarity, lycopene in food preparations will stain any sufficiently porous material, including most plastics. Further lycopene research suggests that it may reduce the chance of serum… Lycopene is almost insoluble in methanol or ethanol, but is soluble in chloroform or benzene. ↑ Bub A, Watzl B, Abrahamse L, et al. Although lycopene from tomatoes has been tested in humans for cardiovascular diseases and prostate cancer, no effect on any disease was found. *Please select more than one item to compare Moderate intervention with carotenoid-rich vegetable products reduces lipid peroxidation in men. P261; P280; P302+P352; P304+P340; P305+P351+P338; P312. [23] Cara cara navel, and other citrus fruit, such as pink grapefruit, also contain lycopene. Laboratory of Poultry Nutrition, Department of Animal Science and Technology, College of Animal Bioscience and Technology, Konkuk University. 1998;33(10):981-984.9832077. Density functional theory has been applied to optimize the configurations of the ground and excited states of lycopene and oxygen respectively. Lycopene extraction from tomatoes, as a promising health-promoting functional food ingredient, is drawing increasing attention by the food industry. 48. It is insoluble in plain water, but it can be dissolved in organic solvents and oils. However, a diet high in olive oil and rich in lycopene may decrease the risk of coronary heart disease by improving the serum lipid profile compared with a high-carbohydrate, low-fat, lycopene-rich di … Because of its lipophilic nature, lycopene concentrates in low-density and very-low-density lipoprotein fractions of the serum. Encapsulation increases chemical and thermal stability of lycopene molecules; it also allows their isolation and individual characterization. Lycopene is packaged in very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) by the liver and released to the systemic circulation (6). ↑ Bub A, Watzl B, Abrahamse L, et al. In the present work, the effect of lycopene on copper induced oxidation of isolated low‐density lipoprotein (LDL) and the related mechanism were investigated. Lycopene (molecular formula: C40H56) is a linear, unsaturated hydrocarbon carotenoid, the major bright red pigment, a phytochemical found in fruits such as tomatoes and other red fruits such as papaya, pink grapefruit, apricots, red oranges, watermelon, rosehips and guavas 3).Lycopene is the most common carotenoid in the human body and is one of the most potent … It is found in tomatoes, watermelon and papaya. Lipids. Schmidt R, Hayn M, Reinhart B, et al. ↑ Erdman JW Jr, Ford NA, Lindshield BL. 2000; 130:2200-2206. Lycopene is a compound or a pigment which gives red color to fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes, watermelon, pink grapefruit and guava. [8] In human blood, various cis-isomers constitute more than 60% of the total lycopene concentration, but the biological effects of individual isomers have not been investigated. [33] The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), in rejecting manufacturers' requests in 2005 to allow "qualified labeling" for lycopene and the reduction of various cancer risks, provided a conclusion that remains in effect as of 2017[update]: "...no studies provided information about whether lycopene intake may reduce the risk of any of the specific forms of cancer. An Optical Density (OD) of 1 = 3.1206 µg of lycopene per mL. [26] Lycopene may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with anticoagulant drugs. There are cases of intolerance or allergic reaction to dietary lycopene, which may cause diarrhea, nausea, stomach pain or cramps, gas, and loss of appetite. Based on the above, FDA concludes that there is no credible evidence supporting a relationship between lycopene consumption, either as a food ingredient, a component of food, or as a dietary supplement, and any of these cancers. Insoluble dans l’eau, le lycopène est transporté par les lipides du sang et s’accumule dans certains organes, en particulier dans le foie et la prostate. La recherche elle-même n'ayant pas été publiée, d'autres chercheurs travaillant sur les anti-oxydants ne sont pas convaincus par cet argument. ", InChI=1S/C40H56/c1-33(2)19-13-23-37(7)27-17-31-39(9)29-15-25-35(5)21-11-12-22-36(6)26-16-30-40(10)32-18-28-38(8)24-14-20-34(3)4/h11-12,15-22,25-32H,13-14,23-24H2,1-10H3/b12-11+,25-15+,26-16+,31-17+,32-18+,35-21+,36-22+,37-27+,38-28+,39-29+,40-30+, InChI=1/C40H56/c1-33(2)19-13-23-37(7)27-17-31-39(9)29-15-25-35(5)21-11-12-22-36(6)26-16-30-40(10)32-18-28-38(8)24-14-20-34(3)4/h11-12,15-22,25-32H,13-14,23-24H2,1-10H3/b12-11+,25-15+,26-16+,31-17+,32-18+,35-21+,36-22+,37-27+,38-28+,39-29+,40-30+, C(\C=C\C=C(\CC/C=C(\C)C)C)(=C/C=C/C(=C/C=C/C=C(/C=C/C=C(/C=C/C=C(\C)CC\C=C(/C)C)C)C)C)C, Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their, Regulatory status in Europe and the United States, Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code, "Foods highest in lycopene, Nutrition Data, USDA Nutrient Database, version SR-21", "Carotenoids: α-Carotene, β-Carotene, β-Cryptoxanthin, Lycopene, Lutein, and Zeaxanthin", "Standard 1.2.4 – Labelling of ingredients", "Current EU approved additives and their E Numbers", "Light-Harvesting Function of β-Carotene Inside Carbon Nanotubes", "How To Clean Tomato Sauce Stains From Plastic Storage Containers", "Gac (Momordica cochinchinensis) Analysis report", "Effects of maturity on physicochemical properties of Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng. Moderate intervention with carotenoid-rich vegetable products reduces lipid peroxidation in men. Lycopene is currently the most powerful antioxidant which has been measured in food and is thought to play a role in preventing cancer, heart disease, and macular degeneration. 2000; 130:2200-2206. CC(=CCC/C(=C/C=C/C(=C/C=C/C(=C/C=C/C=C(/C=C/C=C(/C=C/C=C(/CCC=C(C)C)\C)\C)\C)/C)/C)/C)C Lycopene bioavailability (absorption) can be influenced by many factors. Lycopene travels to the extrahepatic organs through the systemic blood and is available there for its biological action. J Nutr. [4][22], Cooking and crushing tomatoes (as in the canning process) and serving in oil-rich dishes (such as spaghetti sauce or pizza) greatly increases assimilation from the digestive tract into the bloodstream. 49. Lycopene and cardiovascular diseases: an update. [4] Isolation procedures for lycopene were first reported in 1910, and the structure of the molecule was determined by 1931. It is an antioxidant. Lycopene is a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of carotenoids, such as beta-carotene, and xanthophylls. [26] Because lycopene may cause low blood pressure, interactions with drugs that affect blood pressure may occur. Khachik F, Beecher GR, … C. Lung cancer prevention. March 26, 2016. Tomato lycopene and low density lipoprotein oxidation: a human dietary intervention study. [19], Unlike other fruits and vegetables, where nutritional content such as vitamin C is diminished upon cooking, processing of tomatoes increases the concentration of bioavailable lycopene. [14], A 2017 review concluded that tomato products and lycopene supplementation had small positive effects on cardiovascular risk factors, such as elevated blood lipids and blood pressure. In addition, it is lycopene is the only carotenoid that prevents cancer. Absorption of lycopene requires that it be combined with bile salts and fat to form micelles. Puissant antioxydant, le lycopène est un pigment naturel de la famille des caroténoïdes.Il donne à nombre de fruits et légumes leur couleur rouge. [3], In humans, the Observed Safe Level for lycopene is 75 mg/day, according to one preliminary study. 15-cis-phytoene + 4 an oxidized electron acceptor -> all-trans-lycopene + 4 a reduced electron acceptor, 15-cis-phytoene + 5 an oxidized electron acceptor -> all-trans-3,4-didehydrolycopene + 5 a reduced electron acceptor, all-trans-zeta-carotene + 2 an oxidized electron acceptor -> all-trans-lycopene + 2 a reduced electron acceptor, trans-lycopene biosynthesis II (oxygenic phototrophs and green sulfur bacteria), all-trans neurosporene + an oxidized electron acceptor -> all-trans-lycopene + a reduced electron acceptor, all-trans-lycopene + 2 oxygen -> 2 sulcatone + bixin aldehyde, all-trans-lycopene + 2 oxygen -> 4,9,13-trimethyltetradeca-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaene-1,14-dial + pseudoionone + geranial, all-trans-lycopene + 2 oxygen -> 4,9-dimethyldodeca-2,4,6,8,10-pentaene-1,12-dial + 2 pseudoionone, all-trans-lycopene + 2 oxygen -> bixin aldehyde + 2 sulcatone, all-trans-lycopene + 2 oxygen -> pseudoionone + 4,8,13-trimethylhexadeca-heptaenedial + sulcatone, all-trans-lycopene + an oxidized electron acceptor -> all-trans-3,4-didehydrolycopene + a reduced electron acceptor. Lycopene dissolves in carbon disulfide (1 g/50 mL), boiling ether (1 g/3 L), boiling petroleum ether (1 g/12 L) or hexane at 0 ° C (1 g/14 L). Each extension in this conjugated system reduces the energy required for electrons to transition to higher energy states, allowing the molecule to absorb visible light of progressively longer wavelengths. Am J Epidemiol. [4] Intestinal absorption of lycopene is enhanced by the presence of fat and by cooking. Eleven conjugated double bonds give lycopene its deep red color. Quantitative growth experiments conducted in dark, semiaerobic conditions, using a growth medium for high cell density and high intracellular membrane levels, which are suitable for the conventional industrial production in the absence of light, yielded lycopene at up to 2 mg/g (dry weight) of cells or up to 15 mg/liter of culture. What is Lycopene. Lycopene absorbs all but the longest wavelengths of visible light, so it appears red. Lycopene is an open chain unsaturated carotenoid that gives tomatoes, guava, rose hip, watermelon and pink grapefruit its red color. Lycopene-containing foods are often healthier options in our diet as colorful foods like tomatoes are known to help prevent cancer. Plasma antioxidants and cognitive performance in middle-aged … The quenching mechanism of singlet oxygen by lycopene is analyzed based on the calculations at the B3LYP/6-311+(d,p) level. Meta-analysis on serum lipids revealed a significant cholesterol-lowering effect of lycopene for total serum cholesterol (mean change±SE: -7.55±6.15mg/dl; p=0.02) and low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (mean change±SE: -10.35±5.64mg/dl, p=0.0003) in the subgroup of trials using lycopene dosages of ≥25mg daily, whereas subgroup meta-analysis of trials using lower lycopene dosages was … There are various benefits of lycopene; it helps in reducing risk of certain types of cancers, heart disease and macular degeneration. Formulated products containing more than just tomatoes can also be analyzed using this procedure but only with care. [4] Synthesis begins with mevalonic acid, which is converted into dimethylallyl pyrophosphate. 13: 407-433 (1992). Curr Med Chem. Several human epidemiological studies, supplemented by in vivo and in vitro studies, have shown decreased bone loss following the consumption of lycopene/tomato. Lycopene travels to the extrahepatic organs through the systemic blood and is available there for its biological action. Lipids. 49. The carotenoid standard (lycopene) prepared was kept in a screw cap small dark bottle (2 mL) and refrigerated at 4ºC until used. Lycopene is a pigment that gives many fruits and vegetables their red colour. Because of its lipophilic nature, lycopene concentrates in low-density and very-low-density lipoprotein fractions of the serum. Lycopene standard was heated at 50, 100 and 150 C or illuminated at 25 C for varied lengths of time. [4][20] Lycopene in tomato paste is up to four times more bioavailable than in fresh tomatoes. Formula for lycopene content: For preparation of standard lycopene , 1 mg of lycopene (Sigma,USA) standard was separately dissolved in 1 mL of absolute HPLC grade chloroform (Sigma, Germany). The bioavailability of cis-isomers in food is higher than that of all-trans isomers. [3] Although lycopene is chemically a carotene, it has no vitamin A activity. LDL was isolated from plasma by ultracentrifugation. [26], Lycopenemia is an orange discoloration of the skin that is observed with high intakes of lycopene. [4] Lycopene dietary supplements (in oil) may be more efficiently absorbed than lycopene from food. Lycopene can deeply remove vascular waste, regulate plasma cholesterol concentration, protect low-density lipoprotein (LDL) from oxidation, repair and perfect oxidized cells, promote intercellular glial formation, and enhance vascular flexibility. Lycopene is fat-soluble, so the oil is said to help absorption. [4] They are responsible for the bright orange–red colors of fruits and vegetables, perform various functions in photosynthesis, and protect photosynthetic organisms from excessive light damage. In early 2009, one study found 10 milligrams of lyocpene per day helps maintain bone density compared to taking only 3 milligrams per day (8) while another study in the same month found 12 milligrams of lycopene per day to be superior to 4 milligrams per day for bone health (9). Tomato lycopene and β-carotene inhibit low density lipoprotein oxidation and this effect depends on the lipoprotein vitamin E content Lycopene (molecular formula: C40H56) is a linear, unsaturated hydrocarbon carotenoid, the major bright red pigment, a phytochemical found in fruits such as tomatoes and other red fruits such as papaya, pink grapefruit, apricots, red oranges, watermelon, rosehips and guavas 3).Lycopene is the most common carotenoid in the human body and is one of the most potent … [25], Lycopene is non-toxic and commonly found in the diet, mainly from tomato products. Lycopene may be used as a pharmaceutical reference standard for the determination of the analyte in pharmaceutical formulations by a liquid chromatography technique. Keywords: lycopene intake, bone mineral density, bone resorption, bone formation, oxidative stress. Lycopene diet reduces the risk of developing a number of chronic diseases, both the cardiovascular system and internal organs. The extraction process is a unit operation used to obtain targeted food components from natural products such as lycopene from tomatoes. The dual wavelength procedure should be used and the density of the material checked if the sample is to be added by volume. The dual wavelength procedure should be used and the density of the material checked if the sample is to be added by volume. Tomato lycopene and low density lipoprotein oxidation: a human di- etary intervention study. The two terminal isoprene groups of lycopene can be cyclized to produce beta-carotene, which can then be transformed into a wide variety of xanthophylls.[4]. Gac has high lycopene content derived mainly from its seed coats. Two molecules of this product are then condensed in a tail-to-tail configuration to give the 40-carbon phytoene, the first committed step in carotenoid biosynthesis. Through several desaturation steps, phytoene is converted into lycopene. An acyclic carotene commonly obtained from tomatoes and other red fruits. 1. Abstract The molecular structural and Raman spectroscopic characteristics of β‐carotene and lycopene are investigated by density functional calculations. Human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM) were incubated with lycopene in the presence or absence of native LDL (nLDL) or LDL modified by oxidation (oxLDL), aggregation (aggLDL), or acetylation (acLDL). 2004Q-0201)", "Effect of Dietary and Supplemental Lycopene on Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis", Ergocalciferol and Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lycopene&oldid=996974550, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles containing unverified chemical infoboxes, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2017, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with dead external links from June 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Iridoid glycosides (iridoids bound to a sugar), Terpene synthase enzymes (many), having in common a, This page was last edited on 29 December 2020, at 12:37. Formulated products containing more than just tomatoes can also be analyzed using this procedure but only with care. [3][24] Some foods that do not appear red also contain lycopene, e.g., asparagus, which contains about 30 μg of lycopene per 100-g serving[3] (0.3 μg/g) and dried parsley and basil, which contain around 3.5–7.0 μg/g of lycopene. Owing to the strong color, lycopene is useful as a food coloring (registered as E160d) and is approved for use in the USA,[5] Australia and New Zealand (registered as 160d)[6] and the European Union. References. In early 2009, one study found 10 milligrams of lyocpene per day helps maintain bone density compared to taking only 3 milligrams per day (8) while another study in the same month found 12 milligrams of lycopene per day to be superior to 4 milligrams per day for bone health (9). [4] The lycopene content of tomatoes depends on variety and increases as the fruit ripens. Clin Nephrol 1999;52(1):30-36. [28] Lycopene has been studied in basic and clinical research for its potential effects on cardiovascular diseases and prostate cancer,[29][30][31][32] although as of 2017[update] there is no good evidence of benefit in prostate cancer. CopyCopied, InChI=1S/C40H56/c1-33(2)19-13-23-37(7)27-17-31-39(9)29-15-25-35(5)21-11-12-22-36(6)26-16-30-40(10)32-18-28-38(8)24-14-20-34(3)4/h11-12,15-22,25-32H,13-14,23-24H2,1-10H3/b12-11+,25-15+,26-16+,31-17+,32-18+,35-21+,36-22+,37-27+,38-28+,39-29+,40-30+ Additional lycopene benefits are that it also reduces low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and reduces cholestoral levels in the blood.